Blood Grouping And RH Typing


What Is Blood Grouping And RH Typing Test?

Blood grouping and RH typing test is used to determine the blood type of a person. This test is very important to be done if you are planning to donate blood or blood transfusion. All the blood types are not compatible with each other, so it is important to know the blood group. If you are receiving the blood which is not compatible with your blood group, it can be dangerous for the immune system.

How Many Blood Types Are There?

The blood type can be determined by the kind of antigens the red blood cells have on the surface. Antigens help the body to differentiate between foreign and its own cells. If the body finds out that the cell is foreign, it will be destroyed by the antigens.

There are four groups of Blood types:

  • Type A. It has A antigens.
  • Type B. It has B antigens.
  • Type AB. It has both A and B antigens.
  • Type O. It has neither A nor B antigens.

If the foreign antigen enters the system, the body will produce antibodies against them.
Blood donation works as follows:

  • Type O: A person with type O can donate to anybody. It is because their blood has no antigens. They can receive blood from type O only.
  • Type A: A person with type A can donate to another person with type A and type AB individual. However, they can receive blood from type A and type O only.
  • Type B: They can donate blood to AB and B individuals. They can receive blood from type O and type B individuals.
  • Type AB: They can receive blood from any individual, but they can donate blood to type AB only.

Types Of RH Factor

Types of blood are further Categorised in the Rh factor.

  • RH-positive: They can receive Rh-positive or Rh-negative blood.
  • RH-negative: They can receive only Rh-negative blood.

There are 8 possible blood types:

  1. A positive
  2. A negative
  3. B positive
  4. B negative
  5. AB positive
  6. AB negative
  7. O positive
  8. O negative.

Blood Typing is important for pregnant females. If the father is Rh-positive and the mother is Rh-negative, the baby will likely be Rh-positive. So, in this case, the mother will receive a drug called RhoGAM. This drug will help the body from producing antibodies.

Conditions that may warrant a transfusion:

  • Excessive blood loss.
  • Injury or trauma.
  • Bleeding disorder such as haemophilia.
  • Bleeding during or after surgery.